TheВ ImportanceВ OfВ PolymersВ InВ LivingВ OrganismsВ

PolymersВ areВ fundamentalВ toВ allВ livingВ organismsНѕВ theyВ areВ structuresВ that, В withoutВ which, В theВ worldВ couldВ notВ existВ asВ itВ doesВ today. В TheyВ constituteВ theВ buildingВ blocksВ ofВ everythingВ living: В DNAВ andВ RNAНѕВ theyВ formВ proteinsВ andВ carbohydratesНѕВ andВ theyВ haveВ givenВ usВ theВ abilityВ toВ craftВ syntheticВ polymersВ toВ performВ allВ kindsВ ofВ crucialВ rolesВ inВ modernВ life. В В

PolymersВ areВ madeВ upВ ofВ manyВ individualВ monomerВ unitsВ joinedВ togetherВ inВ aВ longВ line. В TheseВ monomers, В whichВ areВ definedВ simplyВ byВ theirВ abilityВ toВ bindВ toВ themselvesВ inВ aВ chain, В don'tВ allВ haveВ toВ beВ theВ same, В soВ thereВ areВ anВ almostВ infiniteВ numberВ ofВ structuresВ formable. В ThisВ explainsВ theВ hugeВ varietyВ ofВ rolesВ thatВ polymersВ play, В andВ theirВ existenceВ inВ everythingВ living. В WhilstВ twoВ polymersВ mayВ beВ extremelyВ distinctВ fromВ eachВ other, В justВ smallВ differencesВ inВ theirВ structureВ canВ completelyВ alterВ theirВ properties. В ForВ example, В bothВ starchВ andВ celluloseВ areВ madeВ fromВ theВ sameВ monomer, В glucose, В andВ haveВ theВ sameВ glucoseВ­basedВ repeatВ units. В ThereВ isВ onlyВ oneВ difference. В InВ starch, В allВ theВ glucoseВ repeatВ unitsВ areВ orientedВ inВ theВ sameВ directionВ (theyВ areВ allВ О±В­glucose). В ButВ inВ cellulose, В eachВ successiveВ glucoseВ unitВ isВ rotatedВ 180В degreesВ aroundВ theВ axisВ ofВ theВ polymerВ backboneВ chain, В alternatingВ betweenВ О±В­glucoseВ andВ ОІВ­glucose. В

PolynucleotidesВ (madeВ upВ ofВ nucleotides)В suchВ asВ DNAВ andВ RNA, В areВ perhapsВ theВ mostВ fundamentalВ ofВ allВ polymers. В DNAВ codesВ forВ everyВ livingВ organismВ knownВ toВ man, В possessingВ genesВ determiningВ everythingВ fromВ behaviouralВ characteristicsВ toВ foodВ metabolisation. В TogetherВ withВ RNA, В stringsВ ofВ threeВ nucleotidesВ (anyВ ofВ adenine, В cytosine, В guanineВ andВ thymine)В knownВ asВ codonsВ codeВ forВ aВ singleВ aminoВ acid, В whichВ inВ turnВ joinВ togetherВ formВ anotherВ polymerВ knownВ asВ aВ protein. В TheВ onlyВ wayВ forВ DNAВ toВ holdВ theВ hugeВ amountВ ofВ informationВ requiredВ isВ forВ itВ toВ beВ aВ polymer. В ThereВ isВ noВ wayВ thatВ aВ singleВ moleculeВ couldВ...

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